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Open Access Published: September 03, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.08.021
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    Highlights

    • Expression levels driven by a pair of Kr enhancers are conserved between Drosophilids
    • Expression levels driven by the individual enhancers diverge between species
    • Compensatory evolution acts to maintain overall Kr expression levels
    • Each shadow enhancer is controlled by different activating TFs
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    Summary

    Many developmental genes are controlled by shadow enhancers—pairs of enhancers that drive overlapping expression patterns. We hypothesized that compensatory evolution can maintain the total expression of a gene, while individual shadow enhancers diverge between species. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression driven by orthologous pairs of shadow enhancers from Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila yakuba , and Drosophila pseudoobscura that control expression of Krüppel , a transcription factor that patterns the anterior-posterior axis of blastoderm embryos. We found that the expression driven by the pair of enhancers is conserved between these three species, but expression levels driven by the individual enhancers are not. Using sequence analysis and experimental perturbation, we show that each shadow enhancer is regulated by different transcription factors. These results support the hypothesis that compensatory evolution can occur between shadow enhancers, which has implications for mechanistic and evolutionary studies of gene regulation.

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